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Mangroves are tropical/subtropical groups of predominately trees species that live in the coastal intertidal zone. There are some 15.9 million hectares of mangrove forests all over the world. Mangroves forest have significant environmental and commercial importance in the economic factor. Forest along Arabian Sea coastal areas and in Indus delta are approximately 129,000 hectares and above 3,000 hectares in Gwadar bay, Kalmat Khor and Miani Hor areas.
Tress that grow near Indus delta has remarkable aerial roots which grip the trunk and vegetation rise them from the water surface. Mangrove Forest grows and spread in those soil which has low oxygen where slow movement of water enables to collect fine sediments. Mangrove makes the flow of water slowly and helps to secure the coastline and prevent erosion. With the passage of time roots can accumulate sufficient mud and debris to increase the boundary of coastline also.
They do not only act as a bridge between marine and terrestrial environment but also the remarkable productive ecosystem. The forests carry energy and organic matter from the surface of the land to the sea forming the base of numerous aquatic food webs. They are habitat to a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial life and as well as use as nurseries for multiple coral reefs, commercially dominant fish species.
A huge number of microorganisms, birds, mammals, and snakes use mangrove forest as a natural habitat. Global warming may improve the development of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and increase sea level rise by melting of glaciers.
Sea level changes would also alter flooding sequences, aerial expanse, and structure of mangroves while climatic change can also change the patterns of rainfall as a result change in salinity regimes and interactions of the forest with other species of wetland. Considerable warning to mangrove ecosystem globally includes cutting and trimming of trees for industrial development, cultivation, poisonous chemicals spills, urbanization, and eutrophication.
Mangrove forests in Pakistan over the last few decades had been victimized due to enormous population pressure and thus declining them rapidly in quantity and quality as well. Many countries in the world with mangroves, a huge number of societies reside in the coastal zone and human activities generally negative effect on the integrity of forests. Many scientists along with the US Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to completely understand global influences on these remarkable ecosystems.
A few decades ago mangroves of Indus delta of Pakistan were classified as the 5th largest mangrove forest of the world but due to anthropogenic activities, their fast degradation effect of the rise of sea level now they classify below 15. Mangrove forests are exploited by local people, timber mafia and uncontrolled urban development. Another global change element that directly modifies the growth of mangrove is an expansion of atmospheric carbon dioxide that is caused by the burning of fossil fuels like oil and coal has raised the level of carbon dioxide in the air and greenhouse gases as well.
Mangroves are being cut cruelty, without realizing their universal significance near built-up areas mangroves is cut for developmental purposes. Mangroves require to be conserved and managed the concerned organization, NGOs and government departments have previously started by proceeding steps and visible attempts are being made.
New mangroves nurseries are made near Karachi, many other projects to develop further forests and mobilization of the native communities by increasing awareness on the importance of mangroves for their livelihood and by influencing them to get responsibility for preserving mangroves.
To cease the degradation of mangrove forest areas, in 1999 the World Bank had recommended that the mangrove forests in Pakistan be secured by proclaiming the Arabian Sea shoreside a national park this sustainable solution will have prolonged dominant effects on nature.
To conserve and manage mangroves of Indus delta and to save them from the further adverse effect of global warming and numeral strategies have been acquired that into the delta the flow of Indus river is increasing, decreasing the exploitation of mangroves, organizing proper urban development, the plantation in bare land and adjoining coastal area.